English

Article: The Significance of Seng-si 2009. The New Hymnal of the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan.

This is an article originally written in Chinese explaining the history of the Presbyterian Hymnal in Taiwan after we published the new Taiwanese Presbyterian Hymnal in 2009.

 

Translated by David Alexander


Introduction: A Brief History of Taiwanese Hymnals

  1. Background of the Formation of Seng-si 2009
  2. Foundation and Principles for Compiling Seng-si 2009
  3. Sources, Compiling Process and Special Features of Seng-si 2009
  4. A Birds Eye View on Text and Music of Typical Taiwanese Hymns
  5. The Significance of Seng-si 2009 Today
    1. Getting out of the Bondage of “the Word Incarnated in White Flesh”
    2. Developing Contextualized Theology: Expression of Faith through Our Mother Tongue and Native Music
    3. Warnings on the Crisis of Entering into the Global Village
    4. Witnessing the Unity in the Body of Christ
  6. Assessments and Challenges

Conclusions


Introduction: A Brief History of Taiwanese Hymnals

Hymnal publication under the aegis of the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan (PCT) since its establishment 145 years ago began under the guidance of William Campbell in 1900. He edited Taiwan’s first collection, which lacked musical notation and had nothing of Taiwanese origin in it. This collection was “words-only”in Han characters. Seng-si 1926 was comprised of 192 hymns with staff notations. It included musical contributions from Taiwanese lowland aboriginal traditions. There were 6 selections, including the tunes TOA-SIA (God created heaven and earth) and TAMSUI (God the Lord in love and might), but there were no hymn texts by Taiwanese people. Seng-si 1936 (a provisional stencil edition) included 347 selections. When formally issued as Seng-si 1937, it was shortened to 342 hymns. Its main contents were gospel songs from 19th century Euro-American repertoire. But it contained texts by three foreign missionaries serving in Taiwan: Hugh MacMillan, Marjorie Landsborough and Margaret Gauld and by five Taiwanese poets who together contributed 21 selections. Two Taiwanese composers, contributed 3 tunes of their own and two more were by the collaboration of two missionaries. Seng-si 1964 is more historically rooted, containing classic Euro-American hymns alongside gospel songs. It also contains 54 hymns and paraphrases by Taiwanese writers. These were added to 19 “local” works carried over from Seng-si 1937 , totaling 73 hymns of local origin, a full 13.95% of the contents of Seng-si 1964. In addition, 15 local tunes joined the 5 carried over from Seng-si 1937 to make up 3.82% of the tunes in Seng-si 1964. Some of these tunes reflected a Taiwan flavor, a homeland context that began to emerge within the hymnody of this church. Nonetheless, in the faith, theology, liturgy and music the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan continued to reflect pre-20th Century Euro-American church traditions. In these matters, the church was non-conversant with wider ecumenical church trends, modernization, multiculturalism or liturgical renewal. But, Taiwan’s hymnology was on the brink of a new historical era.

Century New Hymns, published in 2002, began to make up for these deficiencies. The new book had 130 selections from 35 different nations as well as 50 from Taiwan. In our original proposal for the new PCT hymnal, percentage-wise it was 40% Euro-American, 30% Taiwanese and 30% Third-world. But acceptance of this kind of approach was not easily won from the majority of Taiwan’s Christians.  Later revisions have brought the mix to 50% Euro-American and 25% each for Taiwan sourced and Third-world sourced material. After 11 years of effort, and still not matching the ideals of the editorial committee, but close to the target, Seng-si 2009 was officially released on Easter Sunday of 2009 with 650 hymns, including classical Western, Orthodox, Russian, Latin American, Caribbean, African, Middle Eastern, Asian, Pacific and Australian hymns from 75 nations and regions, as well as Taiwan materials from Holo, Hakka, Highland and Lowland Aborigines of all tribes.

I. Background of the Formation of Seng-si 2009  

The Presbyterian Church in Taiwan continues in the tradition of Biblical and Reformation faith. From early on it followed Euro-American models of separation from what was considered secular in order to have a steady and sanctified faith. In 1959 the American missionary George Todd came to Tainan to promote industrial evangelism. He called churches to open their doors, to enter society and to care for social issues. Afterwards we renewed our understanding of the necessity that “the gospel is care for both spiritual and physical needs” (Luke 4:18); “love of God and love of neighbor” are not separate (Mark 12:30-31); and “unity of faith and works” (James 2:22). These transformations, moved by the Holy Spirit, brought our church to care for the welfare of the Taiwanese people, to face corrupt politics, violation of human rights, injustice and violence, to firm up the spirit of “speaking the truth in love” (Ephesians 4:15) and to “obey God rather than people” (Acts 5:29). Participation in national, social development and change, and led to the promulgation of the “Statement on National Fate” (1971), “Our Appeal” (1975) and the “Statement on Human Rights” (1977). At the time of the Formosa Incident (1979) many clergy and believers sacrificially endured imprisonment and suffering.

In Taiwan history it was the first time that Christians engaged in this sort of strong, open witness. These acts of faith were behind the 1985 “Taiwan Presbyterian Church Confession of Faith,” strongly asserting the sovereignty of God, rootedness in this land and holding hands with the church universal in Christian witness. But these faith reflections lacked one thing: hymns of care for social justice. We began to be conscious of not repeating, imitating or copying the hymns and liturgies which were formulated in the pre-20th century Euro-American context. The collection, compilation, writing and editing of new hymns became our immediate concern.  Since we confessed, “We believe in God, the creator and ruler of human beings and all things, the one true God. He is Lord of history and of the world. He judges and saves… we believe the church is the fellowship of God’s people, universal and rooted in this land, identifying with all of its people…” we should sing hymns that are in accordance with this kind of faith. So 24 years after the 1985 confession of faith we finally published the new hymnal as a belated confession of faith in song.

II. Foundation and Principles for Compiling the New Hymnal

A.  The Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan

Seng-si 2009 is based in The Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan and is edited accordingly. Through the hymns we turn to all people of Taiwan and to the church universal in proclamation that:

1. We believe that God is “the Lord of history and of the world.” Through 2000 to over 3000 years of recorded history of the relationship of God to all humanity includes God’s revelations and actions. We find these in the Bible and in contemporary times, and all are precious faith resources. At all times and in all places God’s people have sung descriptions of God’s mighty acts, helping each other to more deeply enter into and understand the creator of the cosmos and all things, who is the Lord of history. Through hymns we celebrate and learn the divine nature of God, the authority of God, and we help one another to experience the love and power of the Eternal God. Through hymns, the characters of the Bible stories and their relationships with God are told, we are made one with them in faith, and we are connected with the church throughout its history.

2. We believe that “the church is the fellowship of God’s people.” It is “universal.” There are two terms for “people” in Chinese. One of them ‘bai-xing’, from Chinese imperial legacy, is derogatory. It contradicts with the understanding of God’s love for all people of the world, regardless of race, skin color, position or basic faith. We have been careful not to use that term, but we use ‘zi-min’ (children-people). We also feel that our church should not be confined to use only the Euro-American canon of Church music. This leads us to widen the space and make use of the music of the world. We include churches of all confessions: Orthodox, Protestant, Roman Catholic and all streams. In this way we seek to translate the truth of Christ and the roots of all Christian faith singing praises from every corner of the world. We come to understand the hymns of other people, hear their testimony, join in their struggle and experience ourselves as part of the universal church, the people of God, the fellowship of Christ. This deepens our understanding of the nature and meaning of the church and shows us the body of Christ as one that carries the heavy burden of mutual support and concern.

3. We believe that “the church is rooted in this land, identifying with all of its inhabitants,” because the incarnation and redemption of Christ was “once for all.” Christ is Lord for all peoples, including all of Taiwan’s people, who are also made in the image of God. We believe that God’s image and incarnation can also be found in Taiwan’s land, people, cultures, languages, ideologies and customs. All of these are valuable resources for proclamation of faith. We neither deprecate nor reject their expressions of faith, but with respectful attitudes come to appreciate and learn from them, putting down roots in this land to enable us to identify with all of its inhabitants. Our knowledge, wisdom, faith and spirituality can then be more mature, until all of Taiwan’s peoples can live together as one body, united in Christ.

4.We believe that “God has given human beings dignity, talents and a homeland… the arts and sciences, and a spirit which seeks after the true God.” Therefore God has given Taiwan’s people dignity, equality and human rights, and given each a culture, arts, music, creativity, and talents, all of which, if utilized with sincerity and as genuine expression of faith, could become resources for spiritual development, and to witness God living and acting in our midst. Therefore, every tribe and ethnic group ought to utilize their unique gift of creativity to interpret their faith that would move their compatriots to draw near to God. Seng-si 2009 includes 155 texts and 129 tunes from Taiwan sources. Even so, we are not completely satisfied. We hope to create more new songs and not to denigrate God’s honorable gift to the peoples of Taiwan.

So the logic, purpose, and theology behind the editing of Seng-si 2009 was to praise “the glory of God the Creator,”, to proclaim “the grace of Christ the Redeemer,” to bear testimony to “the power of the Spirit the Comforter,” to experience “the mystery of the Triune God,” to strengthen “the fellowship of the peoples of God,” and for the expectation of “the realization of the Kingdom of God.”

B. The Editorial Principles of Seng-Si 2009

The hymnals previously used in Taiwan were based around the post 19th century Western hymns. In 1993 the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan appointed an advisory committee to screen new hymns. At that time they accepted this writer’s proposal that our new hymnal should include hymns that are historical, contemporary, diverse, universal/ecumenical, contextual and liturgical, so that it would be consistent with our 1985 Confession of Faith. Those points became the principles for editing the new hymnal.

1. Historical: Throughout 2000 years of church history God has been self revealing in all times and in all contexts. Classical poets and theologians all interpreted the faith under their contexts, and musicians set these interpretations to their ethnic musical forms. Thus hymns were created in all places, languages and cultures for giving thanks and praising the loving, creative and saving power and mystery of God. These crystallizations of historical beliefs have become part of the common memory and heritage of the world’s Christians today. We cannot neglect them.

2.Contemporary: God’s revealed truth in Jesus Christ is not limited to a single time. It is less possible than that to restrict God’s revealed truth to the cultural milieus of 19th century Euro-American churches. God was, is and ever will be God. God today is neither confined within nor fenced out of revelation to the peoples of the third world. God lives and breathes with us in today’s complex, conflicting, disorderly and frightened world. God struggles with us as we struggle and rejoices with us as we rejoice. Contemporary composers and poets must reflect the situations of the late 20th and early 21st century contemporary world, including the spirit of technological development. Our faith and worship cannot be disconnected to today’s context.

3. Diversity: The world is home to sundry and diverse ethnic cultures, art forms and musical styles. The cultures, arts and musical forms of all people reflect God’s creative abundance and mystery. The Holy Spirit’s gifts are multiform and multiple. Through the application of these gifts, people create hymns which exemplify what was written by the Psalmist, “Sing a new song to the LORD” (Psalm 98:1). Around the world, peoples of all places using all sorts of unique arts cause us to reflect on the height, depth, breadth and length of God’s wonder and glory.

4. Universality: The church of Christ is a universal church. Though we have interpreted the church differently for 2000 years, dividing denominations on understandings of faith, order, biblical authority and other matters, yet there is one thing that we affirm no matter where we stand. Each manifestation of the church has a portion of the truth, mixed in with its own particular errors. We trust in the mercy of God who forgives human weakness and stubbornness. God leads and moves us by the Holy Spirit, enabling different churches around the world to sing praises, share the faith, and interpret Christian life through different forms of worship and liturgy. In this way all ecumenical churches around the world are deepened in unity and widely able to demonstrate the love and providence of God. Therefore, liturgy and music include all sorts of media to enable Christians of all nations to sing praises, experience each others’ gifts, grow in unity and progress in mutuality.

5. Contextual: The incarnation is God’s act, some 2000 years ago, of taking on human form (Phil 2:6-8) as a male Jew with all of the concrete and cultural characteristics that accompany such an identity. But because this gospel, the power of God, came through the elected people of Judea, has been spread through Samaria and Jerusalem to all corners of the world (Act. 1:7). The gospel, therefore, is not a Euro-American cultural artifact. It can be celebrated and interpreted in all of the languages and cultures of humanity. It can be communicated according to the multiple cultural, musical, artistic and imaginative forms available in Taiwan, so that all peoples of this nation can understand, identify with and appropriate this good news. Therefore, our new hymnal includes traditional poetry, art and music from all of Taiwan’s peoples and cultures, as well as contemporary expressions from current cultural, social, political, economic, academic and technically complex contexts to testify to the penetration of the gospel into this land. These types of expressions were lacking in hymnals produced in previous mission contexts where 19th century Western colonial understandings of incarnation prevailed. Being rooted in this land, and identifying with all of the peoples of the land, expresses a faith understanding of humanity and a deep respect for God, without this, our statement and understanding of incarnation would be deceitful.

6. Liturgical: In worship from the reading of the Bible, we heard God’s Word and revelation to us. We sing historical and ecumenical hymns that interpret their understanding of the scriptures and their life experiences, which also facilitate our spiritual growth. Liturgy needs more than great hymns of praise. Short sung responses suitable for every stage of liturgy strengthen its effect. Thus from the call to worship, prayers of thanksgiving, praise, confession of sin, proclamation of the word, fellowship, intercession, dedication and offering, blessing and sending forth, each act of singing and worship has an aspect of encouragement, contrition, comfort, healing, or renewal associated with it. In Presbyterian churches there has been little formality about liturgy, and liturgical music is rarely used. But to strengthen the liveliness of worship, to help believers move from too much emphasis on reasoning to some emotional satisfaction, and to restore equilibrium, the contents of the new hymnal include many contextual and ecumenical short songs or responses that can enhance the spiritual atmosphere of worship and strengthen the life of the congregation.

IIIThe Sources, Compiling and Special Features of Seng-si 2009

A. Sources

In line with the principles described above, the editorial committee of Seng-si 2009 retained 369 selections from Seng-si 1964, among which 24 have been set to new tunes. More recent material : 17 selections from 1985 New Seng-si I, and retranslations of 32 selections from the 1998 New Seng-si II, and 104 items from the 2002 Century New Hymns, was added. Further supplementing came in the form of 128 new compositions or translations from other sources, making a total of 650 hymns and liturgical responses for the final form of Seng-si 2009. Of those 650, fully 155 texts and 129 tunes are works of Taiwanese or Taiwan-based foreign missionaries. However, 27 texts and 5 tunes published in and before 1936 editions were anonymous; whether they were related to missionaries or Taiwanese authors is unknown, hence they were not classified under the “Taiwan” category. This writer joined the editorial committee in 1998, and became chief editor of the final edition. The selections were made as follows:

1. Sourced from “A List of Ecumenical Hymns in English Language” selected by over a dozen scholars from North America, with an eye to interdenominational and ecumenical sensitivity. (See Michael Hawn’ s "The Tie that Binds: A List of Ecumenical Hymns in English Language Hymnals Published in Canada and the United States Since 1976," The Hymn 48:3 (July 1997), 25-37.)

2. Sourced from Sound the Bamboo: CCA Hymnal 2000, hymnal of the Christian Conference of Asia, for typical Asian and Pacific material.

3. Sourced from liturgies of the World Council of Churches and other ecumenical conferences and from ecumenical seminars on music and liturgy, especially Eastern European, Northern European, Latin American and African contemporary materials.

4. Sourced from various Taiwan ethnic groups: Aboriginal and Hakka materials to supplement the predominant Holo group. Further, sourcing the “worship and praise” repertoire and adding newly composed hymns.

Editing of Seng-si 2009 began in 1981, and it took 28 years. Four different committees worked on this project. We were objective in the selection of hymns that would meet the needs of different age groups, but the result was less than ideal. As in the history of compiling hymnals of any country or denomination, there were usual tensions in between preserving tradition and promoting contemporary forms. In post-modern Taiwan, the over-veneration of Western cultural values, and the ambiguity of our Taiwanese self-identity, made it even more difficult to put roots of faith into local soil. Becoming contemporary with the culture and people around us affirms the Reformation principle of ever- renewing roots of faith. Through new Seng-si 2009 , we hope that our congregations can become open to learn these historical, contemporary, global and local hymns as the body of Christ in praise, testimony and confession.

B. Seng-si 2009 Editorial History

The editorial committee work began in 1981, and the following supplements were issued:

1985 New Seng-si I: Includes 60 hymns: 35 are translations of Western materials, 5 each from Africa and Asia, 6 from Taiwan, 8 from China and one from Israel. Due to the lack of promotion, these were taken up by very few churches.

1998 New Seng-si II: Includes 72 selections: 26 are translations of Western materials, plus 7 each from China and Asia, and 25 from Taiwan. The contents include 7 songs for special occasions. But defective editing and multiple errors, resulted in the collection’s being withdrawn.

2002 Century New Hymns: Contains 130 hymns from 35 countries, including 50 hymns from Taiwan. A set of CDs and a Companion were also produced. A Taiwanese and English edition was published in 2007 and a Mandarin edition in 2008.

Seng-si 2009:  650 selections from 75 nations.

C. Special features of Seng-si 2009

Arrangement: Seng-si 2009 is arranged according to the Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan. This is intended to emphasize hymns that express rootedness in this land, love for this homeland, ecumenical unity, justice and peace.

Terminology: To avoid an insult to God, we respect Jewish tradition and do not use the erroneous term “Jehovah” as the name of God (Exodus 20:7) The new hymnal uses “The High Lord” to represent the term “Jehovah” found in hymns translated in previous generations. (This term is often represented in English using all upper case letters LORD to render the Hebrew tetragrammaton). But, even though the explanation has been clearly made, it has met with some resistance.

The AMEN: Originally church hymns did not all end with “Amen.” In the 1850s in the Church of England this was added because of a misinterpretation of the medieval practice. After that it became a general usage. In Seng-si 2009 the historical usage has been restored in line with contemporary ecumenical trends. The Amen remains on doxologies, hymns of praise to God as Trinity and with hymns that are direct prayers to God.

         Multicultural Contents: Seng-si 2009 presents a breadth of musical styles. In the past we only sang Western traditional hymns, but Seng-si 2009 takes us on a tour around the globe: to appreciate Northern European elegant tunes, Latin American passionate songs in minor modes with guitar accompaniment, African antiphonal songs with harmonies , and lively complex rhythms,  Middle-Eastern mystical tunes, and Asian lyrical unison singing with ornaments. Through Seng-si 2009 a congregation can come to experience music of many nations and be transformed through the use of the rich forms and sounds of all of God’s people. Moreover, a congregation in Taiwan can sing the praises of God through forms of this land and its many ethnic groups, experience the polyphony and contemporary forms of all. In this broad space we sing songs that help us experience the joy of God’s people and all of their variety joined together in the mystery of unity in Christ.

Retention of Original Form Tunes have not been re-harmonized, but left to sound much as they would in their home settings. In this way the sound of what is sung helps a congregation to experience the beauty of text-tune relationship intended by the composers. Some hymns have been provided with brief notes on background and suggestions for how they might be used, that churches might understand and perform.

Romanized Taiwanese To enable congregations to sing Taiwanese correctly, hymn texts in Chinese characters are paralleled with Taiwanese in Romanized orthography. The use of characters has also been standardized. It is consistent with our policy that maintaining the Holo language is of foundational importance in Taiwan.

Other-than-Hymn-Contents Seng-si 2009 also contains 77 prayers and faith reflections, many in the form of short poems. 26 of these were written by local poets. Church artists from Taiwan also offered 81 simple line drawings, some of which accompany the theme of the hymn on the facing page. These are intended to aid church members during times of silent meditation. They make use of arts apart from songs to give space for the Holy Spirit to work and draw believers more deeply into the experiences of faith and renewal.

Practicality: Seng-si 2009 is practical and academic with purpose, in order to make it convenient to use by congregations and for researchers to reference. Seng-si 2009 comes with pertinent information and 20 indexes: Taiwanese, English and the original first line, tune name, meter, author, composer, year of work, nationality, cipher notation of first phrase, topics (with major and minor divisions) and scriptural reference etc. Each hymn is accompanied with the tempo and prelude markings. Some performance notes are added for proper rendition. All this information is intended to aid congregational awareness of proper singing in liturgical as well as ecumenical contexts. We are currently preparing a Companion, an accompaniment edition and a CD recording.

Integrity The text and tune of hymns are designed for use in the worship of God and for interpretation and testimony of faith. All materials are the products of Christian wisdom, but respect for international copyright norms is upheld. The editors strove to obtain international and local copyright permission from all legal holders of rights and have paid copyright fees as a matter of professionalism and integrity, taking responsibility for our work as a faithful member of the global village.

IV. A Birds Eye View on Text and Music of Typical Taiwanese Hymns

The Index of 75 separate nations or regions is found on pages 1171-1173 of Seng-si 2009

A. Taiwan materials by ethnic groups (Texts in left column, Tunes in right) 

 族群    詩詞首數

 

曲調首數

 

Amis (阿美族)  247, 269, 312, 313, 343

 

247, 265, 269, 312, 313, 343

Bunun (布農)   228

 

129, 228, 556

Hakkah (客家) 37, 404, 424, 453, 464, 497, 571, 631

 

37, 404, 464, 497, 571, 631

Hô-ló (福佬) 13, 17, 20, 35, 44, 53, 65, 66, 76, 107, 116, 118, 127, 143, 158, 162, 168, 188, 190, 195, 198, 199, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 208, 211, 212, 213, 215, 216, 218, 219. 220, 221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235, 237, 238, 240, 241, 242, 244, 245, 246, 248, 249, 250 252, 258, 268, 283, 287, 305, 308, 315, 327, 328, 333,  348, 368, 372, 377, 383, 393, 395, 432, 433, 434, 435 440, 443, 447, 449, 450, 454, 455, 459, 460, 462, 463, 467, 472, 475, 493, 501, 502, 504, 508, 509, 511, 513, 515, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 524, 527, 528, 530, 541, 549, 555, 556, 562, 578, 592, 596, 598, 600, 604, 617, 636, 639, 648, 649

原作者不詳:4, 30, 183, 186, 206, 207, 209, 210, 274 280, 341, 350, 352, 353, 366, 390, 416, 445, 446, 457 506, 534, 543, 544, 548, 584, 625

 

13, 32, 39, 53, 64, 65, 66, 76, 87, 116, 118, 143, 167, 168, 195, 212, 215, 227, 240, 249, 283, 287, 308, 315, 327, 328, 333, 348, 357, 360, 377, 383, 393, 421, 430, 433, 440, 443, 447, 449, 454, 455, 459, 460, 463, 469, 471, 475, 484, 490, 493, 494, 501, 502, 504, 508, 509, 511, 512, 513, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 525, 527, 528, 541, 549, 555, 562, 571, 578, 579, 598, 600, 604, 605, 607, 617, 630, 636, 639, 646, 647, 648, 649, 650

原作曲者不詳:119, 366, 367, 506, 544

 

(左27首歌詞與右5首曲調因未署作者之名,只知最早來自19261936年與之前的版本,是否宣教師或台灣人的作品無法確認故不計算在內)

Paiwan (排灣) 190, 311

 

190, 265, 311

Pî°-p¬ (平埔)

 

5, 6, 74, 123, 465, 483

Pinuyumayan (比努悠瑪雅呢)

 

239

Saisiat (賽夏) 331

 

331

Seediq (賽德克)  11, 310, 437

 

11, 310, 437

Siraya (西拉雅) 7, 320, 503, 531

 

7, 320, 503, 531

Tao (達悟) 545

 

545

Tayal (泰雅) 314, 499

 

314, 499

Thao (邵族)

 

508

Tsou (鄒族)

 

524

                   Aboriginal 19 texts   32 tunes

   Hakka   8 texts  6 tunes

   Holo  128 texts   91 tunes

         Taiwan Total  155 texts  129 tunes

 

B. Contextual Examples of Taiwan texts and tunes

 

Although many Taiwanese still mimic western styles when writing hymns, and even hymn content fails to manifest Taiwan contextual connection, yet already there are a few aspects of content and style that have a Taiwan flavor to them. They exhibit the concern for the contemporary context, thereby showing the result of the development of contextualization of theology in Taiwan.

 

1. Han poetry texts present cadences and modulations of tone, even and oblique tones, comparison, reiteration and such. As in hymn #116 by Chhoa Cheng-to The Word Became Flesh in the World.

 

Reiteration is found in two places: 

#116. (English by David Alexander)

 

Verse 1:  At his birth a manger low, at his death a glory show

Verse 2:  Vast the distance he traversed, to save humans, all perverse.

Pressed down by the cross he bore, pierced by nail and by thorn

 

In the second and third verses, repetition produces flow

Verse 2  Decisively walked to Golgotha, Golgotha’s lethal Road

Verse 3  Walk Salvation step by step, step by step walk out his love

 

Hymn # 509, “Holy Jesus Lived on Earth” in verses 2,3 & 5 shows antithesis (Taiwanese by Ng Bu-tong, English by David Alexander)

 

v.2.Like Apostle Paul made tents, we now work to pay our rents

On one side we labor hard, on the other witness God

 

         v.3.Though on land our labor be, or in boat upon the sea

            Ev’ry job is sanctified when our Lord is at our side

 

v.5.From this earth both high and low, whether rich or poor, all know

Faithful service cheers the Lord, so depend upon God’s word. 

 

2. The beauty of the sayings of the wise and of proverbs, as found in hymn #490 “Youthful Years are Like the Sun” by Gan Sin-seng (English by David Alexander)

 

v.1. Youthful years are like the sun, hastening towards noon.

If you shine out for the Lord, you won’t fear the dark.

v.2. Young years, can be like a flow’r, opening in Spring.

Breezes, all times give massage, showers keep it clean.

Bud and blossom, fruit and sprout, rooted by a stream,

Flowers bloom and beauty spreads, fragrance all

               Surrounds.

v.3. Young years, can be like a jew’l: polishing required.

Hard things are not out for loan. They must be endured.

Troubles are refiners’ fire. Trials can make us shine

4. Young years do not come again. Blink your eyes, they’re gone.

Treat them as a precious thing. Idleness won’t pay.

 

3. Hakka Songs preserve distinctive sound features, such as in Hymn #497 by Chhun Kien-chung  (English by David Alexander)

 

Worship (ya) the Lord God (ya) is wis- (a) dom. (yo na ai yo),

Discern evil (li-loi) is wisdom (he yo) very (yo) bright (yo) is wisdom.

and

Hymn #37 “God the Father gives increase” by Fam Pin-thiam (English by David Alexander)

 

God our Father gives increase, so that all may live in peace.

By the rain that’s come at last, Paradise is in (is in) our grasp

Yo na oi yo yo tu yo

 

4. Aboriginal non-lexical syllables 

Aboriginal hymns use abundant non-lexical syllables

The Refrain of Hymn #311, a Paiwan song, is one such instance

 

v.1.Thanks and praises to Lord Jesus Christ,

 thanks and praises to Lord Jesus Christ.

Let all peoples bow before the Lord,

let all nations come to him who reigns.

Hai ya na i yu in, hai ya na i yu in, i ya u hai yan

The non-lexical syllables are used as reflections of what has been or will be sung, thus having multiple meanings according to their contexts.

 

Hymn #320, A Siraya song by Ban Siok-goan finds the non-lexicals in the verse:

 

O-hoa-he, O-hoa-he, beat drums, dance, make music praising God on high.

O-hoa-he, O-hoa-he, give thanks daily for God’s love and mercy.

With songs, give thanks, to Almighty God.

Dance with, gladness, to the sounds of home made instruments.

O-hoa-he, O-hoa-he, circle up, hold hands and praise the Lord your God. O-hoa-he, O-hoa-he, be indeed a living sacrifice.

 

 5. Music mirrors Aboriginal rich haromonic practices as a musical microcosmos. Taiwan aboriginal groups have such a diversified harmonic singing techniques which encompass a world of harmonic crafts that this writer has called it a musical microcosmos. As in hymn #331, a Saisiat parallel harmony in 4ths or 5ths

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Tsou Tribe with parallel 4ths and 5ths but have been altered and arranged with a third voice added.

 

 

 

 

7. Pinuyumayan Sectional canons in three parts

 

 

 

8. Thao  Occasional harmony  

 

9. Bunun double thirds harmony  

 

 

 

 

10. Amis call and response in polyphonic free harmony   

 

And other forms as well.

 

   11. Hymn developed out of Folk song motif,

Siraya Hymn #531  

 

Melodies derived from Holo Wailing song motif, Hymn #604 

 

 

 

12. Hymns of Concern for Taiwan and Taiwan’s Democracy

 Such as this by Gan Sin-seng, Hymn #460

“ Business Booming in Taiwan”    (English by David Alexander)

 

v.1. Taiwan’s business runs so fast, all things change, so few can last.

Science drags us, livings change, social life becomes so strange.

Villages are cities now, but our neighbors, we don’t know.

Farm and fac’try cheek by jowl, lane and road filled with cars’ howl.

 

v.2, Though we’re busy all day through, every hour has chances, too.

Worship God above us all. Jesus blessings on us fall.

Small or great our work may be, we perform diligently.

Meet the future day by day, honestly along the way.

 

v.3.In our service, we’re sincere. To our neighbors we are pure.

If investments profit back, hometown poor will know no lack.

Though the world is very wide, in Taiwan our roots abide.

Ardent faith in Jesus Christ, clearly shows forth from our lives.

 

 

1994 Mission Assembly Theme song Hymn #556

 

v.2.Come Holy Spirit to Taiwan, renew our social mission long

Justice and peace and human rights, for all the people in your sight.

v.3.Times change and crises come and go, renew us spirit here below

Salt of the earth that flavors all, light of the world upon us fall.

v.4.Lord here you find us, send us now, Salvation’s truth to spread    about

On earth as heav’n your will be done, May Jesus’ gospel save Taiwan.

 

And this, by Ng Bu-tong  Hymn # 518 (English by David Alexander)

v.1. May God Bless this, Taiwan our home. East West South North, peak to sea foam.

Seasons all four, harvests provide, fruit of justice and, righteousness.

v.2. Land is small, but, farms yield plenty. Winds blow, rain falls, things grow gently.

Races unite, as one people, happ’ly to live, calmly to dwell.

v.3. May we live by, God’s commandments, home and overseas, if we’re sent.

All the peoples on this island, stand united, ‘gainst all vi’lence.                        

v.4. May Christ’s gospel flow as water, to Taiwan’s each, son and daughter.

May God’s commands be our hearts’ laws, may Taiwan know peace without pause.

 

13. Pressing on towards ethnic harmony, Hymn #524

 by Ong Cheng-bun  (English by David Alexander)

 

v.3. Jesus Christ, it’s your love, drives us on. Makes us dare to dream.

Dare to dream, Dare to dream,

Dream of sowing seeds around. They will sprout in fertile ground.

Dream of sowing seeds around. They will sprout in fertile ground.

v.4. Jesus Christ, come and break our hard shells. Teach us how to love. How to love, how to love,

May all races find in you, unity and love that’s true.

May all races find in you, unity and love that’s true

 

These textual and musical expressions of faith from the contemporary Taiwan context can be understood as demonstrations of contextual theology.

 

V       The Contemporary Significance of Seng-Si 2009

A. Free from the bondage of “The White Flesh Incarnation of the

       Christian Faith:”

For over a century most ecumenical churches, including the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan have lived enclosed in a culture derived from white, Euro-American forms of liturgy, style, theology, music and other forms of mainstream presentations of the Christian Faith. This writer presented a paper in a conference of the World Association of Chinese Church Music in 1987, commenting on the phenomena that many Chinese and Asian Churches were like “bananas”, yellow on the outside and white on the inside; they all subscribe to “translated theology,” all theological thinking was translated from Western theologians; they all use “second-hand liturgies” based on 19th century and earlier Western styles, and “carbon-copied music,” not just that which had been produced with a photo-copy machine, even newly composed music were written and harmonized in styles imitative of Western models. Seng-si 2009 rebels against that entrapment, including the art, music, faith expressions and cultural forms from 7 continents, 75 nations and regions, and a breadth of variety that leads people to break out of the White skin shell and open themselves up to the breadth of God’s creation. In this way, users of Seng-si 2009 give glory to God in many styles, behold Christ incarnate as a human in many forms, and recognize all peoples, suffering and rejoicing with all. Set free from imprisonment in White skin, the people of Christ find Christ in yellow skin, black skin, brown skin and red skin, yet all at the same time being the one true Christ. 

B. Develop Contextual Theology:

Through use of mother tongues and local music, the faith of Taiwan’s peoples in their own idioms is expressed. Seng si 2009 includes 155 texts and 129 tunes of Taiwan origin, from over 10 different ethnicities including Hakka, Holo, New Resident (China) and Aboriginal styles, folk songs and new compositions. There are a few new hymns, as discussed earlier, that give particular “birds eye views” of life here. Through the use of mother tongues of many peoples we see the beauty of poetic expression, including non-lexical syllables with multiple meanings and differing meters to demonstrate the context of each ethnic group in expression of joy, sadness and the concerns of life. The contemporary challenges and drives of each group are expressed abundantly and in various musical languages. This is the basis and foundation of contextual theology in Taiwan. Christ’s gospel is already rooted in this land; it bears fruit in many forms of expression.

C. A warning of the consequences of globalization:

In the 1960s Taiwan began to transform from an agricultural to an industrial nation. Rooted, as this culture is, in agricultural technique, information resources and industrial development, we are already global in reach. Taiwan corporations produce 60% of the notebook computers used in this world. But our misery is found in our status as a political orphan nation. Nonetheless, we are an important member in the global village. Reflecting on past values, seemingly lost, our ecology, seemingly ruined, and the wasteful lifestyles of most people in contemporary Taiwan, we cry out with loud voices to citizens of the entire world regarding the environment and the crisis all around us. Hymn #515 about the wild green fields calls for protection of our paradise.

v.3.What will pierce our hardened hearts, and impose a sharp rebuff?

Land and forests, seas and air - - will their ruin be enough?

v.4. Join, all people of good will, while there’s time live modestly,

Guard each trace of paradise, keep alive things heavenly.

Science and Technology

Hymn # 562, “Science Drives the Age of Space”, humbly recognizes human limitations and cries out “Revere the Lord, Obey God’s Might”

v.3. The web has changed the ways we learn and phones in hands all

barriers spurn.
The cyber world's a growing field so deepest secrets are revealed.
But success has come at great cost, independence may have been

lost.

Organ transplants, animal clones, lure us from nature’s laws and

homes.

v.4. But God who knows all and is free has granted creativity
   All science, poetry and art in God's provision have their start.
   High above the source of all life, God still loves us and knows

our strife
Help us O Lord, Savior and friend, That we may serve our

Sovereign.

D. Witness to Christian Unity

Seng-si 2009 includes 75 nations’ hymns and liturgical responses for use in worship. These overcome boundaries of ethnicity, culture, nation, religion, doctrine or liturgical differences. Christians in Taiwan do not lack appreciation for the forms of music of many peoples, local and overseas. Through the use of the materials in Seng-si 2009 they can experience the mysterious depths of Eastern Orthodox traditions, the lively melodies of the Middle East, Unison singing from South Asia, and fresh rhythms from Latin America and the Caribbean. In addition, there are intricate complex celebratory materials from Africa. These offer a variety of Christian witness which unifies. Singing each others’ music puts into conversation with Christians around the world. We worship with one heart, share the grace and the gospel of Christ, and find unity and maturity with each other. 

VI. Assessments and Challenges

Last of all, we must examine Seng-si 2009 and question it on the basis of the contemporary context of Taiwan. Although Seng-si 2009 contains Tayal, Sediq, Bunun, Saisiat, Tsou, Thao, Paiwan, Pinuyumayan, Amis, Tao, Siraya, Holo and Hakka new hymns, and “worship and praise” form of songs favored by younger generations, the collection still lacks certain kind of hymns. In departing from treasured forms, we have met opposition to some of the newly written or newly translated contemporary hymns, or to the re-setting of familiar hymns with different tunes. Speaking frankly, we still lack hymns that reflect our faith in depth, We lack materials that show the Taiwan context in terms of struggles for justice, peace, human rights, and freedom. We need hymns that proclaim a witness of the gospel to our own people in the forms of music that are ethnically congruent to them. We have organized a few hymn writing seminars and have called for submissions of new hymns, but they left us far from our goal of getting hymns rooted in this land but carrying a universal message. We have leady laid the foundation for deepening our root in Taiwan as well as linking with the ecumenical world. But this writer hopes for deeper penetration and more diversity in the development of hymns for our church to be more matured and stronger. It is an ideal, which faces five challenges, as enumerated below:

A. There are too few people equipped to do the job

Though we have a few Taiwanese poets and composers, we still fall short of producing ideal hymns.

1. Hymns must be rooted in Biblical truth and in concrete living experience with deep theological reflection. Many poets offer verses, but few offer depth. Our church lacks poets who can master the Taiwanese language. Other poets often write, but without a sense of poetic structure which is suitable for hymns.

Still need more works that reflect our unique Taiwanese musical syles. Hymn tunes should be lyrical, simple and easy to sing, the music carries the meaning and imagery of the text with artistic beauty. This is not an easy task. We have plenty of composers in our church who are more keen on composing larger choral or instrumental pieces that they could exercise their creative gifts without having to consider the limitation of the congregation. We still need more works that reflect our unique Taiwanese musical styles.

3. We have called for and selected some “worship and praise” type of songs, but their theological content and musical quality are below our expectations. We realized that we can never satisfy those who only yearn for such kind of songs.

B. There are too few translators of Taiwanese hymns

The fact that only a small number of translators and the editorial committee members were envolved in the editing of this hymnal indicates the lack of translators in our church.  We need more capable hymn translators to translation not only from English, but also German, Japanese and many other Asian languages into Taiwanese and Mandarin. The oppressive educational policy of the government as well as the general disrespect attitude to the Taiwanese language have resulted in the limited ability to handle Taiwanese with poetic beauty. We are concerned that without proper education and training, the beauty of Holo language and literature will be in danger of being lost.

C. The difficulty of identifying with the music of Taiwan

For 145 years the Christian church has been taught to praise God through the use of Euro-American hymns. The great majority of our musicians who have been trained in Western music denigrate any music that does not follow Western forms. We are distant from our homeland music. The foreign regime and the church all look down on Taiwanese music, and the general public also failed to define what is Taiwanese music. Most people regard Western influenced or Japan style popular music as “Taiwanese folk song.” This sort of ignorant and disrespect of own music situation makes it difficult to root church music in this land. In recent years the society has come to grudgingly respect the voices of the cultures of Taiwan and to call for a reinvigoration of a Taiwan cultural identity. This has some impact on the churches, where things change slowly. They still have difficulty appreciating music harmony that has gone beyond their familiar traditional Western idioms. Nonetheless, Aboriginal hymns have been welcomed, and this must be both noted and appreciated.

D. The need to break through the “worship and praise” styles

The youth and churches who are keen on “worship and praise” styles of music need to broaden their repertoire to include songs from historical, contemporary, and indigenous sources, and to integrate them properly into their liturgical contexts, so that their voices might combine to attain the praise of God through unity of hearts and voices. (Colossians 3:16 and Ephesians 5:19)

E. Opening the door to the music of the third world

In general, Taiwan’s academic and ecclesiastical organizations have been musically dominated by Western musical forms for over 140 years. Taiwan’s people have come to understand a few western classical and contemporary popular musical styles. Interest in local music has waned. In fact, the lack of interest is not just about this homeland, but the musical heritage of the 3rd world, of Asia, Africa, the Pacific, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean is generally neglected. Though as Christians we affirm that God’s Spirit indwells all churches of the world and praise of God is rightful in every tongue and idiom, yet we do not strive to hear voices apart from those of Europe and America. Now that 25 % of the selections of Seng-si 2009 are from the 3rd world, opening the door of Taiwan’s churches to musical and cultural expressions from places that we have not previously heard, this also brings potential problems.

1. Some hymns in Asian-style come with intervals and harmonies with which Taiwan’s Christians are unfamiliar. People feel these are difficult to sing and unpleasant to hear. Some pianists are unable to resist the temptation of re-harmonizing them into Western styles. This has in fact impaired the integrity of the ethnic styles. We need to break out of our imprisonment in Western styles and must learn to respect and appreciate the music of all groups, not merely following an outdated Western musical aesthetic.

2. Because most Taiwanese Christians are accustomed to Western traditional chords (do-mi-sol, sol-si-re, fa-la do), the rhythms and harmonic intervals of African music are not particularly difficult. These simple, short, repetitive forms suited to the use of drums soon become familiar and are easy to imitate. Congregations accept African tunes more easily than Asian music. That many churches have accepted and begun to sing African hymns is something that we should affirm. It only takes a bit of time to develop skills in percussive rhythms to give Taiwanese people an impression of the African image of God, and to join them in their worship.

3. Latin American hymns are lively and have a harmonic quality similar to minor keys in the West. Many can be accompanied by both guitar and percussion instruments, which are easily available in Taiwan. Taiwan’s people receive these gladly. Beyond teaching the syncopation rhythms, though, the task in Taiwan is to get churches to accept guitar and other instrumentation accompaniment to give life to their music.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. When turning to God and singing new songs, Christians should praise the Lord, and extol God’s holy name (Ps 96:1). Our Taiwan Presbyterian Church Seng-si 2009 respects this sovereign, powerful and universal Christian spirit, equipping congregations to sing new songs extol God’s name in world through use of the praise songs and hymns of the peoples of 75 nations
  2. Christ-centered worship in the spirit of Christian faith interprets the gospel through the hymns that are used. Our church music and musical education must be grounded and centered here. St Paul wrote, “Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly as you teach and counsel one another with all wisdom, and as you sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs with gratitude to God in your hearts.”(Colossians 3:16) The contents of Seng-si 2009 fulfill this mandate.
  3. Typically in churches, one should avoid unduly ecstatic praise music that is overly emotional and avoids irrationality. In this way, we seek to conform to the reminder of St Paul, “I will pray with my spirit, but I will also pray with my mind; I will sing with my spirit, but I will also sing with my mind. (I Corinthians 14:15)
  4.  The ecclesiology of the Christian Church as one body teaches us not only to serve and educate all nations, whether we use our own local music or the hymns of all nations, but that we must also promote the actualization of the faith in forms suitable for moving communities. Because poets exhort, we sing songs to praise God, to affirm that God rules the world through justice. All peoples must face the Lord (Psalm 96:10-13). With this in mind, we must respect the will of God and establish justice and truth with our compatriots and with our neighbors. To this end, we turn to God in song; the use of music would not be rejected or judged. The prophet Amos declared, “Take away from me the noise of your songs; I will not listen to the melody of your harps. But let justice roll down like waters, and righteousness like an ever-flowing stream.” (Amos 5:23-24) This can be our rallying cry.

This is the true theme of the 1985 Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan, and it has been fleshed out incarnated in Seng-si 2009. “To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!”(Revelation 5:13)

 

Appendices

INDEX OF COUNTRIES OF HYMN TEXTS AND TUNES


   國家        詩詞首數

 

曲調首數

Anonymous (不詳)  29, 73, 106, 128, 145, 307, 311, 330, 345, 380, 405, 419, 477, 566, 640, 641, 642, 643, 644

 

31, 106, 128, 145, 183, 209, 217, 246, 330, 350, 534, 642

Argentina (阿根廷) 99, 288, 292, 526

 

99, 288, 292, 526

Australia (澳大利亞) 470

 

470

Austria (奧地利) 1, 48

 

8, 48, 205, 382, 418, 446

Bangladesh (孟加拉) 284

 

284

Belgium (比利時)

 

172

Brazil (巴西) 42, 192

 

17, 42, 192

Cameroon (喀麥隆) 381

 

381

Canada (加拿大) 132, 175, 272, 590, 611, 647

 

175

Caribbean (加勒比海地區) 296

 

296

China (中國) 33, 49, 51, 124, 148, 407, 408, 436, 452

 

33, 49, 51, 124, 148, 280, 325, 401, 407, 408, 424, 436, 452

Amoy (廈門) 5, 6, 40, 93, 119, 123, 130, 138, 139, 169, 181, 182, 196, 202, 214, 217, 234, 256, 323, 325, 354, 359, 365, 386, 389, 391, 394, 397, 398, 431, 442, 451, 465, 498, 579, 623

 

93, 394

Hong Kong (香港) 400

 

400, 453

Columbia (哥倫比亞) 178

 

178

Croatia (克羅埃西亞)

Czechoslovakia(捷克)103

 

258

Denmark (丹麥)

 

643

England (英國)  2, 3, 8, 15, 19, 25, 45, 46, 52, 55, 56, 59, 63, 68, 70, 71, 75, 86, 90, 92, 95, 98, 100, 109, 104, 121, 122, 134, 135, 136, 142, 144, 151, 154, 161, 163, 164, 170, 171, 173, 177, 180, 185, 222, 254, 255, 257, 272, 301, 317, 318, 324, 346, 347, 349, 360, 361, 367, 370, 371, 373, 376, 382, 392, 396, 406, 413, 415, 417, 418, 434, 439, 444, 469, 476, 478, 479, 483, 485, 487, 488, 491, 492 507, 512, 514, 516, 525, 532, 533, 537, 550, 563, 564, 568, 573, 580, 581, 582, 583, 591, 594, 607, 608, 609, 620, 621, 634, 637, 638

 

2, 3, 15, 18, 19, 24, 30, 35, 44, 52, 56, 59, 68, 70, 73, 75, 84, 90, 92, 94, 101, 104, 109, 113, 120, 127, 136, 142, 153, 154, 155, 156, 162, 163, 164, 171, 174, 176, 179, 181, 197, 198, 199, 203, 204, 206, 216, 218, 220, 222, 224, 225, 226, 231, 233, 241, 242, 244, 248, 250, 255, 256, 257, 272, 278, 301, 317, 318, 323, 340, 347, 356 358, 365, 373, 374, 385, 388, 389, 395, 396, 405, 415, 416, 417, 427, 432, 434, 439, 444, 487, 491, 492, 498, 510, 530, 532, 539, 547, 548, 550, 552, 558, 559, 563, 566, 573, 585, 592, 594, 610, 620, 621, 625, 633, 634, 638

Estonia (愛沙尼亞)  476

 

 

Finland (芬蘭) 111

 

29, 111, 614, 616

France (法國) 41, 54, 69, 77, 85, 89, 103, 113, 155, 230, 289 303, 329, 332, 364, 523, 565, 610

 

41, 43, 46, 54, 69, 71, 83, 103, 110, 230, 232, 243, 254, 289, 302, 303, 329, 332, 364, 371, 386, 392, 406, 411, 507, 523, 565

Germany (德國) 26, 38, 125, 126, 172, 281, 306, 362, 414, 438 495, 561, 569, 576, 603, 605, 614, 618, 624

 

9, 26, 38, 40, 45, 55, 63, 85, 86, 89, 98, 114, 121, 125, 126, 134, 138, 185, 188, 200, 213, 236, 238, 245, 252, 273, 274, 281, 298, 306, 362, 368, 384, 390, 429, 438, 448, 467, 495, 525, 543, 561 564, 569, 576, 583, 603, 618, 624, 637, 640

Ghana (迦納) 21, 78, 282

 

21, 78, 282

Greece (希臘) 387, 388, 429

 

641

Holland (荷蘭)

 

100

Hungary (匈牙利) 57, 542, 557, 632

 

57, 542, 557, 632

Iceland (冰島) 425

 

425

India (印度) 263, 275, 412

 

229, 263, 275, 412, 626

Indonesia (印尼) 81, 268, 293, 402, 462

 

81, 268, 293, 402, 462

Iran (伊朗) 496

 

496

Ireland (愛爾蘭) 91, 114, 120, 159, 385, 448, 633

 

60, 159, 170, 266, 409, 419

Israel (以色列) 43, 486, 500, 585

 

307, 397, 486, 500

Italy (義大利) 9, 105, 176, 409

 

105, 180, 391, 414

Ivory Coast (象牙海岸) 596

 

596

Jamaica (牙買加) 22, 72

 

72, 370, 485

Japan (日本) 14, 31, 36, 80, 319, 410, 458, 480, 529, 577, 599, 636

 

14, 80, 96, 319, 410, 577, 599

Korea (韓國) 482, 567, 615

 

478, 482, 567, 615

Latin America (拉丁美洲) 291, 304, 481

 

178, 291, 304

Libya (利比亞) 340

 

 

Lithuania (立陶宛)

 

476

Malawi (馬拉威) 423

 

423

Malaysia (馬來西亞)  47, 58, 79, 129, 191, 259, 342

 

47, 58, 79, 191, 259

Mexico (墨西哥) 336

 

336

Mozambique (莫三比克) 262

 

262

Myanmar (緬甸) 261

 

261

New Zealand (紐西蘭) 32, 64, 96, 108, 167, 187, 326, 494

 

108, 187, 326

Nigeria (奈及利亞) 286

 

286

Pakistan (巴基斯坦) 299, 338

 

299, 338

Palestine (巴勒斯坦) 472

 

472

Panama (巴拿馬)  336, 339

 

336, 339

Paraquay (巴拉圭) 335

 

335

Peru (秘魯) 290

 

290

Philippines (菲律賓) 10, 39, 260, 300, 369, 378

 

10, 260, 300, 369, 378, 515

Poland (波蘭) 62

 

62

Puerto Rico(波多黎各)  304

 

 

Romania (羅馬尼亞) 276, 277

 

276, 277

Russia (俄羅斯) 253, 601

 

253, 345, 601

Rwanda (盧安達) 456

 

456

San Vincente (聖文森)

 

22

Scotland (蘇格蘭) 24, 34, 83, 94, 60, 110, 133, 137, 153, 157, 179, 197, 266, 278, 279, 294, 322, 356, 358, 420, 427, 474, 510, 552, 626

 

91, 107, 139, 144, 169, 186, 201, 211, 214, 235, 237, 294, 341, 346, 359, 420, 442, 474

Serbia (塞爾維亞) 650

 

 

Singapore (新加坡) 82, 399

 

82, 399

South Africa (南非)  297, 403, 619, 635

 

297, 403, 619, 635

Spain (西班牙) 67

 

133, 202, 304

Sri Lanka (斯里蘭卡) 285

 

285

Sweden (瑞典) 27, 351, 473, 597

 

27, 351, 473, 597

Switzerland (瑞士) 84, 342

 

130, 305, 342, 435, 609

Syria (敘利亞) 101, 337

 

337

Tahiti (大溪地) 372

 

372

Taiwan (台灣)

 

 

Amis (阿美族)  247, 269, 312, 313, 343

 

247, 265, 269, 312, 313, 343

Bunun (布農)   228

 

129, 228, 556

Hakkah (客家) 37, 404, 424, 453, 464, 497, 571, 631

 

37, 404, 464, 497, 571, 631

Hô-ló (福佬) 13, 17, 20, 35, 44, 53, 65, 66, 76, 107, 116, 118 127, 143, 158, 162, 168, 188, 190, 195, 198, 199, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 208, 211, 212, 213, 215, 216, 218, 219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235, 237, 238, 240, 241, 242, 244, 245, 246, 248, 249, 250, 252, 258, 268, 283, 287, 305, 308, 315, 327, 328, 333, 348, 368, 372, 377, 383, 393, 395, 432, 433, 434, 435, 440, 443, 447, 449, 450, 454, 455, 459, 460, 462, 463, 467, 472, 475, 493, 501, 502, 504, 508, 509, 511, 513, 515, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 524, 527, 528, 530, 541, 549, 555, 556, 562, 578, 592, 596, 598, 600, 604, 617, 636, 639, 648, 649

原作者不詳:4, 30, 183, 186, 206, 207, 209, 210, 274 280, 341, 350, 352, 353, 366, 390, 416, 445, 446, 457 506, 534, 543, 544, 548, 584, 625

 

13, 32, 39, 53, 64, 65, 66, 76, 87, 116, 118, 143, 167, 168, 195, 212, 215, 227, 240, 249, 283, 287, 308, 315, 327, 328, 333, 348, 357, 360, 377, 383, 393, 421, 430, 433, 440, 443, 447, 449, 454, 455, 459, 460, 463, 469, 471, 475, 484, 490, 493, 494, 501, 502, 504, 508, 509, 511, 512, 513, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 525, 527, 528, 541, 549, 555, 562, 571, 578, 579, 598, 600, 604, 605, 607, 617, 630, 636, 639, 646, 647, 648, 649, 650

原作曲者不詳:119, 366, 367, 506, 544

Paiwan (排灣) 190, 311

 

190, 265, 311

Pî°-p¬ (平埔)

 

5, 6, 74, 123, 465, 483

Pinuyumayan (比努悠瑪雅呢)

 

239

Saisiat (賽夏) 331

 

331

Seediq (賽德克)  11, 310, 437

 

11, 310, 437

Siraya (西拉雅) 7, 320, 503, 531

 

7, 320, 503, 531

Tao (達悟) 545

 

545

Tayal (泰雅) 314, 499

 

314, 499

Thao (邵族)

 

508

Tsou (鄒族)

 

524

Tanzania (坦尚尼亞) 165

 

165

Thailand (泰國) 267, 316

 

267, 316

Trinidad (千里達) 422

 

422

Ukraine (烏克蘭) 334

 

334

United States of America (美國) 12, 16, 18, 23, 28, 41, 50, 61 74, 87, 88, 97, 102, 115, 117, 131, 132, 140, 146, 147, 149 150, 152, 156, 160, 166, 173, 174, 184, 189, 193, 194, 236 243, 251, 270, 271, 273, 298, 309, 321, 344, 355, 357, 363, 364, 374, 375, 379, 384, 401, 426, 428, 441, 461, 466, 468, 471, 484, 489, 505, 535, 536, 538, 539, 540, 547, 551, 553, 554, 559, 560, 570, 572, 574, 575, 586, 587, 588, 589, 593, 595, 602, 606, 612, 613, 627, 628 629, 630, 645, 646

 

4, 12, 16, 20, 23, 25, 28, 34, 36, 50, 61, 88, 95, 97, 102, 115, 117, 122, 131, 132, 135, 137, 140, 146, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 160, 161, 166, 173, 177, 182, 184, 189, 193, 194, 196, 207, 219, 221, 234, 251, 270, 271, 279, 309, 321, 322, 324, 344, 349, 352, 353, 354, 355, 361, 363, 375, 376, 379, 380, 387, 398, 409, 413, 426, 428, 431, 445, 450, 451, 457, 458, 461, 466, 477, 479, 488, 489, 505, 514, 529, 533, 535, 536, 538, 540, 546, 551, 553, 554, 570, 572, 574, 575, 580, 581, 584, 586, 587, 588, 589, 590, 591, 593, 595, 602, 606, 608, 611, 612, 613, 623, 627, 628, 629, 644, 645

Venezuela (委內瑞拉)  481

 

481

Wales (威爾斯) 546, 616, 622

 

19. 77, 158, 223, 441, 468, 560, 568, 582, 622

Zambia (尚比亞) 141

 

141

Zimbabwe (辛巴威) 112, 264, 295

 

112, 264, 295

 

 

 

 

 

References Cited

Hawn, Michel

   1997 "The Tie that Binds: A List of Ecumenical Hymns in English Language Hymnals Published in Canada and the United States Since 1976," The Hymn 48:3 (July 1997), 25-37.)

江玉玲 (Jiang, Yu-ling)

 2004《聖詩歌:台灣第一本教會聖詩的歷史淵源》。台灣基督教文   藝出版社

翁佩偵 (Wong, Pei-zhen)

 2007 〈英加長老教會聖詩在台發展─兼論教會聖詩之本土化〉。新使者no. 102, pp.4-11.

陳宏文 (Chen, Hong-wen)

1972 《馬偕博士在台灣》。台北.中國主日學協會,1997年增訂  

駱維道(I-to Loh)

   1982 Tribal Music of Taiwan: with Special Reference to the Ami and Puyuma Styles. UCLA Ph. D. disser.

 1988 以道成肉身的音樂禮拜:我的使命。 世界華人聖樂促進會第九屆大會講詞。

 2001〈教會音樂與民俗音樂-台灣教會會眾聖詩之尋根〉,神學與教會、第廿六卷第二期,頁290-330,2001年6月

 2007〈台灣基督長落教會新聖詩編集:理念與實踐之挑戰〉。新使  者no. 102, 12-19, 2007.

2008 〈台灣教會情境化禮儀與音樂發展之過程與檢討〉香港中文   大學演講 10/21/2008

 2009〈台灣基督長老教會新《聖詩》的誕生:釘跟本土與放眼普世的信仰見證〈教會公報, 2009年5月